Pacific Ocean

Composites of NOAA Climate Prediction Center precipitation in mm day-1 broken down by MJO phase for active MJO days for the November 2015 - April 2016 El Niño event.
September 4, 2020

Subseasonal to seasonal climate forecasts in the US depends heavily on atmospheric and oceanic conditions in the tropical Indian and Pacific Ocean regions. While ENSO dominates seasonal predictability, the primary source of global predictability on subseasonal timescales is the MJO. To understand how ENSO and MJO interact, the authors isolated both MJO and ENSO signals and found that depending on the simultaneous location of the MJO convection and the background state of ENSO, the two signals can either enhance or mask each other.

Saildrone: Adaptively sampling the marine environment
July 23, 2020

To improve atmospheric and oceanographic monitoring, a new type of autonomous marine vehicle, the Saildrone, has been developed and deployed in over 40 cruises from which data are publicly available. Coupled with data from other sources such as satellites, Saildrone measurements could be useful for future algorithm and numerical model improvements, particularly at the fine spatial scale and in complex and previously data-sparse ocean regions.

Schematic representation of the (a) atmospheric “non-frontal” and (b) atmospheric “frontal” components
October 4, 2018

New research illustrates that the key to recognizing the influence of the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension on the seasonal mean and longer-term climate is through a proper understanding of how the ocean influences atmospheric fronts.

Subsurface ocean heat content anomalies regressed onto low-pass filtered time series of eastern tropical Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies. The black boxes outline the eastern (10°–20°S, 100°–120°E) and western (10°–20°S, 50°–90°E) Indian Ocean, showing the east–west dipole structure.
September 11, 2018

In two papers, Jin and coauthors investigated how decadal variations of subsurface ocean heat content (50–300 m) in the Indian Ocean respond to conditions in the Pacific region.

SST anomalies in the boreal winter
August 3, 2018

A coupling in Pacific dynamics has been increasing in observational records between 1950–2017, leading to more frequent occurrences of multi-year warm events like the marine heatwave of 2014–15

Atmospheric river moisture transport to the West Coast of the US
July 2, 2018

Researchers found that atmospheric rivers that impact the West Coast contain more tropical moisture than average, indicating that long-distance transport of tropical moisture does occur.

Changes in SST variance of ENSO
April 6, 2018

ENSO experienced a regime shift in the late 1970s, after which events become stronger and less frequent. Researchers now conclude that the regime shift did not occur by chance but was due to a “real” change in the ENSO system.

hurricane intensity
March 19, 2018

Research shows that SST may explain a significantly smaller percentage of the variance in tropical cyclone intensification in the Atlantic as compared to the western North Pacific and eastern-central Pacific.

Monthly SST anomalies 1920–2016
August 30, 2017

New research confirms that links between warm and cool years in the California Current System and El Niño are important but imperfect.  

map showing anomalies in SST and total soil water
August 1, 2017

Researchers have developed a state-of-the-art drought and wildfire prediction system, showing the multi-year predictive skills of drought and wildfire conditions beyond the typical timescale of seasonal climate forecast models. 

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