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Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis (ETOS) WG Resources

Administrative Documents

ETOS WG Prospectus


Meeting Minutes

Teleconference Minutes April 2012

Teleconference Minutes September 2012

Teleconference Minutes November 2012

Bob Weller Surface Mooring Presentation (from November 2012 Teleconference)

Teleconference Slides June 2013



Challenges and Prospects for Reducing Coupled Climate Model SST Biases in the eastern tropical Atlantic and Pacific Oceans: The US CLIVAR Eastern Tropical Oceans Synthesis Working Group (Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society, 2016, doi:10.1175/BAMS-D-15-00274.1)

Selected Publications (General)

U.S. CLIVAR Variations, Vol. 9 No. 2, Summer 2011 (focus on Tropical Atlantic)

Doi, T., G. A. Vecchi, A. J. Rosati, and T. L. Delworth, 2012: Biases in the Atlantic ITCZ in seasonal-interannual variations for a coarse and a high resolution coupled climate model. J. Climate, 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00360.1.

Gettelman, A., J. E. Kay, and K. M. Shell: The Evolution of Climate Sensitivity and Climate Feedbacks in the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Climate, 25, 1453-1469, 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00197.1.

Hu, Z.-Z., B. Huang, Y.-T. Hou, W. Wang, F. Yang, C. Stan, and E. K. Schneider, 2011: Sensitivity of Tropical Climate to Low-Level Clouds in the NCEP Climate Forecast System. Climate Dyn., 36, 1795-1811. DOI 10.1007/s00382-010-0797-z.

Kay, J. E., and Coauthors: Exposing global cloud biases in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM) using satellite observations and their corresponding instrument simulators. J. Climate, 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00469.1.

Medeiros, B., D. L. Williamson, C. c. Hannay, and J. G. Olson: Southeast Pacific stratocumulus in the Community Atmosphere Model. J. Climate, 10.1175/jcli-d-11-00503.1.

Semyon A. Grodsky, James A. Carton, Sumant Nigam, Yuko M. Okumura, Tropical Atlantic Biases in CCSM4. Journal of Climate, early online release. 


Selected Publications (Pacific)

GFDL model:

Wittenberg, A. T., A. Rosati, N.-C. Lau, and J. J. Ploshay, 2005: GFDL’s CM2 Global Coupled Climate Models, Part 3: Tropical Pacific Climate and ENSO. J. Climate, in press.


G. Danabasoglu, W. G. Large, J. J. Tribbia, P. R. Gent, B. P. Briegleb, and J. C. McWilliams, 2005 :Diurnal Ocean-Atmosphere Coupling. J. Climate, submitted.

Deser, C., A. Capotondi, R. Saravanan, and A. Phillips, 2005:Tropical Pacific and Atlantic Climate Variability in CCSM3. J. Climate, submitted.

Large, W. G. and G. Danabasoglu, 2005: Attribution and Impacts of Upper Ocean Biases in CCSM3. J. Climate, submitted.

COLA model:

 Kirtman, B. P., Y. Fan and E. K. Schneider, 2002: The COLA global coupled and anomaly coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM. J. Climate, 15, 2301-2320.

Coupled model intercomparisons (chronological):

 Neelin, J. D., and and Coauthors,, 1992: Tropical air–sea interaction in general circulation models. Climate Dyn., 7, 73–104.

 Mechoso, C. R., and and Coauthors,, 1995: The seasonal cycle over the tropical Pacific in coupled ocean–atmosphere general circulation models. Mon. Wea. Rev., 123, 2825–2838.

 Davey, M. K., and and Coauthors,, 2001: STOIC: A study of coupled model climatology and variability in tropical ocean regions. Climate Dyn., 18, 403-420.

 Latif, M., and and Coauthors,, 2001: ENSIP: The El Niño Intercomparison Project. Climate Dyn., 18, 255-276.

Mechanistic investigations:

 Huang, B. and E. K. Schneider, 1995: The response of an ocean general circulation model to surface wind stress produced by an atmospheric general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev. 123, 3059-3085.

 Kirtman, B. P. and  E. K. Schneider, 1996: Model based estimates of equatorial zonal wind stress. J. Climate, 9, 1077-1091.

 Li, J.-L. F., M. Köhler, J. D. Farrara and C. R. Mechoso, 2002: The impact of stratocumulus cloud radiative properties on surface heat fluxes simulated with a general circulation model. Mon. Wea. Rev., 130, 1433-1441.

 Li, T. and S. George H. Philander. 1996: On the Annual Cycle of the Eastern Equatorial Pacific. Journal of Climate: Vol. 9, No. 12, pp. 2986–2998.

 Ma, C.-C., C. R. Mechoso, A. Arakawa and J. D. Farrara, 1994: Sensitivity of a coupled ocean-atmosphere model to physical parameterizations. J. Climate, 7, 1883-1896.

 Mechoso, A. W. Robertson and A. Arakawa, 1996: Peruvian stratus clouds and the tropical Pacific circulation - a coupled ocean-atmosphere GCM study. J. Climate., 9, 1635-1645.

 Mechoso, C. R., J. D. Neelin, and J.-Y. Yu, 2003: Testing simple models of ENSO. J. Atmos Sci., 60, 305-318.

 Philander, S.G.H., D. Gu, G. Lambert, T. Li, D. Halpern, N.-C. Lau and R.C. Pacanowski. 1996: Why the ITCZ Is Mostly North of the Equator. Journal of Climate: Vol. 9, No. 12, pp. 2958–2972.

 Schneider, E. K., 1997: A note on the annual cycle of sea surface temperature at the equator. COLA Report No. 36, 17pp.

 Schneider, E. K. and Z. Zhu, 1998:Sensitivity of the Simulated Annual Cycle of Sea Surface Temperature in the Equatorial Pacific to Sunlight Penetration. J. Climate, 11, 1932-1950.

 Schneider, E. K., 2002: The causes of differences between equatorial Pacific SST simulations of two coupled ocean-atmosphere general circulation models. J. Climate, 15, 449-469.

 Yu, J.-Y., and C. R. Mechoso, 1999: A discussion on the errors in the surface heat fluxes simulated by a coupled GCM. J. Climate, 12, 416-426.

 Yu, J.-Y., and C. R. Mechoso, 1999: Links between annual variations of Peruvian stratus clouds and of SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific. J. Climate, 12, 3305-3318.   


Selected Publications (Indian Ocean)

 Wajsowicz, R.C., 2004: Climate Variability over the Tropical Indian Ocean Sector in the NSIPP Seasonal Forecast System. Journal of Climate: Vol. 17, No. 24, pp. 4783-4804.

 Wajsowicz, R.C., 2005a: Forecasting extreme events in the tropical Indian Ocean sector climate. Dynamics of Atmospheres and Oceans: Vol. 39, Issues 1-2, pp. 137-151.

 Wajsowicz, R.C., 2005b: Potential predictability of tropical Indian Ocean SST Anomalies. Geophysical Research Letters, submitted.

 Wajsowicz, R.C., 2005c: Seasonal-to-interannual forecasting of tropical Indian Ocean sea-surface temperature anomalies: potential predictability and barriers. Journal of Climate, submitted.


Related Websites

PCMDI coupled model appraisal