High Latitude Surface Flux WG Resources

High Latitude Surface Fluxes Working Group Reports

Additional High Latitude Surface Fluxes References

Turbulent Fluxes over the Ocean

Measurement of Bulk Flux Input Variables

Turbulent Fluxes over Ice

Andreas, E. L., 2002:  Parameterizing scalar transfer over ice,  J. Hydrometeor., 3, 417-432.

Brunke, M. A., M. Zhou, X. Zeng, and E.L. Andreas, 2009: An intercomparison of bulk aerodynamic algorithms used over sea ice with data from the SHEBA experiment  J. Geophys. Res., to appear. 

Tjernstrom, M., M. Zagar, G. Svensson, J. J. Cassano, S. Pfeifer, A. Rinke, K. Wyser, K. Dethloff, C. Jones, T. Semmler, and M. Shaw, 2005:  Modelling the Arctic boundary layer:  An evaluation of six ARCMIP regional-scale models using data from the SHEBA Project, Boundary Layer Meteor., 117, 337-381.

Radiative Fluxes

Energy Budget/Trends

Hansen, J., L. Nazarenko, R. Ruedy, M. Sato, J. Willis, A. Del Genio, D. Koch, A. Lacis, K. Lo, S. Menon, T. Novakov, J. Perlwitz, G. Russell, G. A. Schmidt, N. Tausnev, 2005.  Earth's Energy Imbalance: Confirmation and Implications, Science, 308, doi:  10.1126/science.1110252.

Levitus, S., J. Antonov and T. Boyer, 2005: Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003, Geophys. Res. Lett.,  32,  L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592.
Persson, P. O. G., C. W. Fairall, E. Andreas, P. Guest, and D. K. Perovich, 2002. Measurements near the atmospheric surface flux group tower at SHEBA: Near-surface conditions and surface energy budget. J. Geophys. Res., 107, 8045, doi: 10.1029/2000JC000705.

Serreze, M. C., A. P. Barrett, A. J. Slater, M. Steele, J. Zhang, and K. E. Trenberth, 2007: The large-scale energy budget of the Arctic, J. Geophys. Res., 112, D11122, doi:10.1029/2006JD008230.

Sorteberg, A., V. Kattsov, J. E. Walsh, and T. Pavlova, 2007: The Arctic surface energy budget as simulated with the IPCC AR4 AOGCMs, Climate Dynamics, 29, 131-156.

CO2 Fluxes


Huffman, G. J. et al., 1997: The Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) combined precipitation data set, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 5-20.

Serreze, M. C. and C. M. Hurst, 2000: Representation of mean Arctic precipitation from NCEP-NCAR and ERA Reanalyses, J. Climate, 13, 182-201.

Serreze, M. C., A. P. Barrett, and F. Lo, 2005: Northern high-latitude precipitation as depicted in atmospheric reanalyses and satellite retrievals,Mon. Wea. Rev., 133, 3407-3430.

Xie, P. and P.A. Arkin, 1997: Global precipitation: A 17-year monthly analysis based on gauge observations, satellite estimates and numerical model output, Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 78, 2539-2558.


Boyer, T. P., J. I. Antonov, S. Levitus, and R. Locarnini, 2005: Linear trends of salinity for the world ocean, 1955-1998. Geophys. Res. Lett., 32(L01604), doi:1029/2004GL021791.

Curry, R, and C. Mauritzen, 2005:  Dilution of the Northern North Atlantic Ocean in Recent Decades, Science, 308,  1772 – 1774.

Data Sets

Bourassa, M. A., R. Romero, S. R. Smith, and J. J. O’Brien, 2005: A new FSU winds climatology. J. Climate, 18, 3686-3698.

Grassl, H., V. Jost, J. Schulz, M. R. Ramesh Kumar, P. Bauer, and P. Schluessel, 2000: The Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS): A Climatological Atlas of Satellite-Derived Air-Sea Interaction Parameters over the World Oceans. Report No. 312, ISSN 0937-1060, Max Plank Institute for Meteorology, Hamburg,. [Available at http://www.hoaps.zmaw.de/]

Hilburn, K. A., M. A. Bourassa, and J. J. O'Brien, 2003: Scatterometer-derived research-quality surface pressure fields for the Southern Ocean. J. Geophys. Res., 108, 10.1029/2003JC001772.

Josey, S. A., E. C. Kent, and P. K. Taylor, 1998: The Southampton Oceanography Centre (SOC) Ocean-Atmosphere Heat, Momentum and Freshwater Flux Atlas. Southampton Oceanography Centre Rep. 6, Southampton, UK, 30pp + figs.

Kanamitsu, M., W. Ebisuzaki, J. Woollen, S.-K. Yang, J. J. Hnilo, M. Fiorino, and G. L. Potter, 2002: NCEP-DOE AMIP-II Reanalysis (R-2). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 83, 1631-1643.

Onogi, K., and coauthors, 2007: The JRA-25 Reanalysis. J. Meteor. Soc. Japan, 85, 369-432.

Röske, F., 2006. A global heat and freshwater forcing dataset for ocean models, Ocean Modelling, 11, 235-297.

Smith, S., P. Hughes, and M. Bourassa, 2009: A comparison of nine monthly air-sea flux products. Internat. J. Clim., submitted.

Uppala, S. M., and coauthors, 2005: The ERA-40 re-analysis. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 131, 2961-3012.

Yu, L., and R. A. Weller, 2007: Objectively analyzed air-sea heat fluxes for the global ice-free oceans (1981-2005). Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 88, 527-539.

Upper Ocean Water Mass Transformations, Mixing, and Heat Content

Cerovecki, I., L. Talley and M. Mazloff, 2009: Subantarctic Mode Water and Antarctic Intermediate Water Formation using a Walin framework.  In preparation.

Dong, S., S. T. Gille, and J. Sprintall, 2007:  An assessment of the Southern Ocean mixed-layer heat budget, J. Climate, 20, 4425-4442.

Large, W. G., J. C. McWilliams, and S. C. Doney, 1994: Oceanic vertical mixing: a review and a model with a nonlocal boundary layer parameterization. Rev. Geophys., 32. 363-403.

Levitus, S., J. Antonov and T. Boyer, 2005: Warming of the world ocean, 1955-2003, Geophys. Res. Lett.,  32,  L02604, doi:10.1029/2004GL021592.


Hakkinen, S, A, Proshutinsky and I. Ashik, 2008: Sea ice drift in the Arctic since the 1950s. Geo. Res. Lett., 35, L19704.

Holland. M. M., M. C. Serreze and J. Stroeve, 2009: The sea ice mass budget of the Arctic and its future change as simulated by coupled climate models, Climate Dynamics (in press), doi:10.1007/s00382-008-0493-4.

Makshtas, A. P., E. L Andreas, P.  N. Svyashchennikov, V. F. Timachev, 1999:  Accounting for clouds in sea ice models, Atmos. Res., 52, 77-113.

Perovich, D. K., E. L. Andreas, J. A. Curry, H. Eiken, C. W. Fairall, T. C. Grenfell, P. S. Guest, J. Intrieri, D. Kadko, R. W. Lindsay, M. G. McPhee, J. Morison, R. E. Moritz, C. A. Paulson, W. S. Pegau, P. O. G. Persson, R. Pinkel, J. A. Richter-Menge, T. Stanton, H. Stern, M. Sturm, W. B. Tucker III, and T. Uttal, 1999: Year on ice gives climate insights. Eos Trans. AGU, 80, 481, 485-486.

Perovich, D. K., J. A. Richter-Menge, K. F. Jones, and B. Light, 2008:  Sunlight, water, and ice:  Extreme Arctic sea ice melt during the summer of 2007, Geophys. Res. Lett., 35, L11501, doi:10.1029/2008GL034007.

Strong, C., G. Magnusdottir and H. Stern, 2009: Observed feedback between winter sea ice and the North Atlantic Oscillation. J. Climate.  In Press.

Storm Track

Magnusdottir, G., Deser, C. and R. Saravanan, 2004: The effects of North Atlantic SST and sea ice anomalies on the winter circulation in CCM3. Part I: Main features and storm track characteristics of the response. Journal of Climate, 17, 857-876.

Zhang, X., A. Sorteberg, J. Zhang, R. Gerdes and J. C. Comiso, 2008: Recent radical shifts of atmospheric circulations and rapid changes in arctic climate system. Geo. Res. Lett., 35, L22701

Issues with Satellite Sampling

Schlax, M. G., D. B. Chelton and M. H. Freilich, 2001: Sampling errors in wind fields constructed from single and tandem scatterometer datasets. J. Atmos. Oceanic Tech., 18, 1014-1036.