US Climate Variability and Predictability Program

Publications 2009-2002


 2009  |  2008  |  2007  |  2006  |  2005  |  2004  |  2003  |  2002  


  • Anderson, J., T. Hoar, K. Raeder, H. Liu, N. Collins, R. Torn, and A. Avellano, 2009: The data assimilation research testbed. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Sc.90, 1283-1296, doi:10.1175/2009BAMS2618.1.
  • Bower, A. S., M. S. Lozier, S. F. Gary, and C. Böning, 2009: Interior pathways of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. Nature458, 243-247, doi:10.1038/nature07979.
  • Bryden H. L., A. Mujahid, S. A. Cunningham, and T. Kanzow: Adjustment of the basin-scale circulation at 26°N to variations in Gulf Stream, deep western boundary current and Ekman transports as observed by the RAPID array. Ocean Sci. Disc.6, 871-908, doi:10.5194/os-5-421-2009.
  • Duan, X. J., J. Y. Guo, C. K. Shum, and W. van der Wal, 2009: Towards an optimal scheme for removing correlated errors in GRACE data. J. Geodesy83, 1095–1106, doi:10.1007/s00190-009-0327-0.
  • Guo, J. Y., and C. K. Shum, 2009: Application of the cos-Fourier expansion to data transformation between different latitude-longitude grids. Comput. Geosci., 35, 1439–1444, doi:10.1016/j.cageo.2008.09.010.
  • Hirschi J. J. M., Killworth P. D., Blundell J. R., Cromwell D.: Sea surface height signals as indicators for oceanic meridional mass transports. J. Phys. Oceanogr.39, 581-601, doi:10.1175/2008JPO3923.1.
  • Joyce, T. M., Y. O. Kwon, and L. Yu, 2009: On the relationship between synoptic wintertime atmosphericvariability and path shifts in the Gulf Stream and Kuroshio Extension. J. Climate22, 3177-3192, doi:10.1175/2008JCLI2690.1.
  • Kanzow, T., H. L. Johnson, D. P. Marshall, S. A. Cunningham, J. J. M. Hirschi, A. Mujahid, H. L. Bryden, and W. E. Johns, 2009: Basinwide integrated volume transports in an eddy-filled ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.39, 3091–3110, doi:10.1175/2009JPO4185.1.
  • Liu, Z., B. Otto-Bliesner, F. He, E. Brady, P. Clark, J. Lynch-Steiglitz, A. Carlson, W. Curry, E. Brook, R. Jacob, D. Erickson, J. Kutzbach, and J. Cheng, 2009: Transient simulation of last deglaciation with a new mechanism for Bølling-Allerød warming. Science325, 310-314, doi:10/1126/science/11710411.
  • Peterson, T. C., and M. O. Baringer, Eds., 2009: State of the Climate in 2008. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc.90, S1-S196,
  • Wunsch, C., and P. Heimbach, P., 2009: The global zonally integrated ocean circulation, 1992-2006: Seasonal and decadal variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr.39, 351-368, doi:10.1175/2008JPO4012.1.
  • Zeng, L., P. Shi, W. T. Liu, and D. Wang, 2009: Evaluation of a satellite-derived latent heat flux product in the South China Sea: A comparison with moored buoy data and various products. Atmos. Res.94, 91-105, doi:10.1016/j.atmosres.2008.12.007.


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  • Kanzow T., H. Johnson, D. Marshall, S. A. Cunningham, J. J. M. Hirschi, A. Mujahid, H. L. Bryden, and W. E. Johns: Basin-wide integrated volume transports in an eddy-filled ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.39, 3091–3110, doi:10.1175/2009JPO4185.1.


  • Baehr, J., S. A. Cunningham, H. Haak, P. Heimbach, T. Kanzow, and J. Marotzke: Observed and simulated daily variability of the meridional overturning circulation at 26.5°N in the Atlantic. Ocean Sci., 5, 575-589, doi:10.5194/os-5-575-2009.
  • Kanzow T., U. Send, and M. S. McCartney: On the variability of the deep meridional transports in the tropical North Atlantic. Deep-Sea Res. I55, 1601–1623, doi:10.1016/j.dsr.2008.07.011.
  • Johns W.E., L.M. Beal, M. O. Baringer, J. Molina, S. A. Cunningham, T. Kanzow, and D. Rayner: Variability of shallow and deep western boundary currents off the Bahamas during 2004-2005: First results from the 26°N RAPID-MOC array. J. Phys. Oceanogr.,38, 605–623.


  • Kanzow, T., J. J. M. Hirschi, C. S. Meinen, D. Rayner, S. A. Cunningham, J. Marotzke, W. E. Johns, H. L. Bryden, L. M. Beal, and M. O. Baringer, 2008: A prototype system of observing the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation - scientific basis, measurement and risk mitigation strategies, and first results. J. Oper. Oceanogr.1, 19-28.
  • Xie, X., W. T.  Liu, and B. Tang, 2008: Spacebased estimation of moisture transport in marine atmosphere using support vector machine. Remote Sens. Environ.112, 1845-1855, doi:10.1016/j.rse.2007.09.003


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  • Dong, B., T. Rowan, and Sutton: Enhancement of ENSO variability by a weakened Atlantic thermohaline circulation in a coupled GCM, J. Climate20, 4920–493.
  • Dong, S., S. T. Gille, and J. Sprintall, 2007: An assessment of the Southern Ocean mixed layer heat budget, J. Climate20, 4425–4442.
  • Drijfhout, S. S., and W. Hazeleger, 2007: Detecting Atlantic MOC changes in an ensemble of climate change simulations, J. Climate20, 1571–1582.
  • Fedorov, A., M. Barreiro, G. Boccaletti, R. Pacanowski, and S. G. Philander, 2007: The freshening of surface waters in high latitudes: effects on the thermohaline and wind-driven circulations, J. Phys. Oceanogr.37, 896–907.
  • Hirabara, M., H. Ishizaki, and I. Ishikawa, 2007: Effects of the Westerly wind stress over the Southern Ocean on the meridional overturning,J. Phys. Oceanogr.37, 2114–2132.
  • Hirschi, J. J.M., P. Killworth, and J. R. Blundell, "Subannual, Seasonal, and Interannual Variability of the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation". J. Phys. Oceanogr.,37, 1246-1265.
  • Hirschi, J., and J. Marotzke, 2007: Reconstructing the meridional overturning circulation from boundary densities and the zonal wind stress, J. Phys. Oceanogr.37, 743–763.
  • Keller, K., C. Deutsch, M. G. Hall, and D. F. Bradford, 2007: Early detection of changes in the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation: implications for the design of ocean observation systems, J. Climate20, 145–157.
  • Köhl, A., D. Stammer, and B. Cornuelle, 2007: Interannual to decadal changes in the ECCO global synthesis, J. Phys. Oceanogr37, 313–337.
  • Krebs, U., and A. Timmermann, 2007: Tropical air–sea interactions accelerate the recovery of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation after a major shutdown, J. Climate20, 4940–4956.
  • Levermann, A., J. Mignot, S. Nawrath, and S. Rahmstorf, 2007: The role of Northern Sea ice cover for the weakening of the thermohaline circulation under global warming, J. Climate20, 4160–4171.
  • Lohmann, K., and M. Latif, 2007: Influence of El Niño on the upper-ocean circulation in the tropical Atlantic Ocean, J. Climate20, 5012–5018.
  • Mignot, J., A. Ganopolski, and A. Levermann, 2007: Atlantic subsurface temperatures: response to a shutdown of the overturning circulation and consequences for its recovery, J. Climate20, 4884–4898.
  • Pickart, R. S., and M. A. Spall, 2007: Impact of Labrador Sea convection on the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, J. Phys. Oceanogr., 37, 2207–2227.
  • Schneider, B., M. Latif, and A. Schmittner, 2007: Evaluation of different methods to assess model projections of the future evolution of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, J. Climate20, 2121–2132.
  • Sutton, R. T., and D. L. R. Hodson, 2007: Climate response to basin-scale warming and cooling of the North Atlantic ocean, J. Climate20, 891–907.
  • Timmermann, A., Y. Okumura, S. I. An, A. Clement, B. Dong, E. Guilyardi, A. Hu, J. H. Jungclaus, M. Renold, T. F. Stocker, R. J. Stouffer, R. Sutton, S. P. Xie, and J. Yin, 2007: The influence of a weakening of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation on ENSO, J. Climate20, 4899–4919.
  • Zhang, R., T. Delworth, and I. Held, "Can the Atlantic Ocean drive the observed multidecadal variability in Northern Hemisphere mean temperature?". Geophys. Res. Letters34.



 2009  |  2008  |  2007  |  2006  |  2005  |  2004  |  2003  |  2002  |  Back to top 


  • Bryan, F. O., G. Danabasoglu, N. Nakashiki, Y. Yoshida, D. H. Kim, J. Tsutsui, and S. C. Doney, 2006: Response of the North Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation and Ventilation to Increasing Carbon Dioxide in CCSM3. J. Climate19, 2382–2397.
  • Bugnion, V., C. Hill, and P. H. Stone, 2006: An Adjoint Analysis of the Meridional Overturning Circulation in an Ocean Model. J. Climate19, 3732–3750.
  • Collins, M., M. Botzet, A. F. Carril, H. Drange, A. Jouzeau, M. Latif, S. Masina, O. H. Otteraa, H. Pohlmann, A. Sorteberg, R. Sutton, and L. Terray, 2006: Interannual to Decadal Climate Predictability in the North Atlantic: A Multimodel-Ensemble Study. J. Climate19, 1195–1203.
  • Latif, M., C. Boning, J. Willebrand, A. Biastoch, J. Dengg, N. Keenlyside, and U. Schweckendiek, Is the Thermohaline Circulation Changing? J. Climate19, 4631-4637.
  • Latif, M., M. Collins, H. Pohlmann, and N. Keenlyside, A Review of Predictability Studies of Atlantic Sector Climate on Decadal Time ScalesJ. Climate19, 5971-5987.
  • Mignot, J., A. Levermann, and A. Griesel, 2006: A decomposition of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation into Physical Components Using Its Sensitivity to Vertical Diffusivity. J. Phys. Oceanogr.36, 636–650.
  • Pohlmann, H., F. Sienz, and M. Latif, "Influence of the Multidecadal Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation Variability on European ClimateJ. Climate19, 6062-6067.
  • Saenko, O. A., 2006: The Effect of Localized Mixing on the Ocean Circulation and Time-Dependent Climate Change. J. Phys. Oceanogr.36, 140–160.
  • Sijp, W. P., and M. H. England, 2006: Sensitivity of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation and its stability to basin-scale variations in vertical mixing. J. Climate19, 5467–5478.
  • Sime, L. C., D. P. Stevens, K. J. Heywood, and K. I. C. Oliver, 2006: A decomposition of the Atlantic meridional overturning. J. Phys. Oceanogr.36, 2253–2270.
  • Spence, J. P., and A. J. Weaver, 2006: The impact of tropical Atlantic freshwater fluxes on the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation. J. Climate19, 4592–4604
  • Stouffer, R. J., J. Yin, J. M. Gregory, K. W. Dixon, M. J. Spelman, W. Hurlin, A. J. Weaver, M. Eby, G. M. Flato, H. Hasumi, A. Hu, J. H. Jungclaus, I. V. Kamenkovich, A. Levermann, M. Montoya, S. Murakami, S. Nawrath, A. Oka, W. R. Peltier, D. Y. Robitaille, A. Sokolov, G. Vettoretti, and S. L. Weber, 2006: Investigating the causes of the response of the thermohaline circulation to past and future climate changes. J. Climate19, 1365–1387.
  • Wunsch, C., and P. Heimbach, Estimated Decadal Changes in the North Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation and heat Flux 1993-2004J. Phys. Oceanogr.36, 2012-2024.
  • Yin, J., and R. J. Stouffer, 2006: Comparison of the Stability of the Atlantic Thermohaline Circulation in Two Coupled Atmosphere–Ocean General Circulation Models. J. Climate20, 4293–4315.
  • Zhang, R., and T. Delworth, "Impact of Atlantic multidecadal oscilations on Inda/Sahel rainfall and Atlantic hurricanes". Geophys. Res. Letters33.


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  • Bryden, H. L., H. R. Longworth, and S. A. Cunningham, 2005: Slowing of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation at 25° N. Nature438, 655-657.
  • Dai, A., A. Hu, G. A. Meehl, W. M. Washington, and W. G. Strand, 2005: Atlantic thermohaline circulation in a coupled general circulation model: unforced variations versus forced changes. J. Climate18, 3270–3293.
  • Deshayes, J., and C. Frankignoul, 2005: Spectral characteristics of the response of the meridional overturning circulation to deep-water formation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.35, 1813–1825.
  • Dong, B., and R. T. Sutton, 2005: Mechanism of interdecadal thermohaline circulation variability in a coupled ocean–atmosphere GCM.J. Climate18, 1117–1135.
  • Jungclaus, J. H., H. Haak, M. Latif, and U. Mikolajewicz, 2005: Arctic–North Atlantic interactions and multidecadal variability of the meridional overturning circulation. J. Climate18, 4013–4031.
  • Köhl, A., 2005: Anomalies of meridional overturning: mechanisms in the North Atlantic. J. Phys. Oceanogr.35, 1455–1472.
  • Mignot, J., and C. Frankignoul, 2005: The variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation, the North Atlantic oscillation, and the El Niño–Southern oscillation in the Bergen climate model. J. Climate18, 2361–2375.
  • Quadfasel, D., The Atlantic heat conveyor slowsNature438, 565-566.
  • Timmermann, A., S. I. An, U. Krebs, and H. Goosse, 2005: ENSO suppression due to weakening of the North Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J. Climate, 18, 3122–3139.
  • Wunsch, C., 2005: The total meridional heat flux and its oceanic and atmospheric partition. J. Climate18, 4374–4380.
  • Zanna, L., and E. Tziperman, 2005: Nonnormal amplification of the thermohaline circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.35, 1593–1605.
  • Zhang, R. and T. Delworth, 2005: Simulated Tropical Response to a Substantial Weakening of the Atlantic Thermohaline CirculationJ. Climate18, 1853–1860.


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  • Boos, W. R., J. R. Scott, and K. A. Emanuel, 2004: Transient diapycnal mixing and the meridional overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.34, 334–341.
  • Johnson, H., and D. Marshall, 2004: Global teleconnections of meridional overturning circulation anomalies. J. Phys. Oceanogr.34, 1702–1722.
  • Pasquero, C., and E. Tziperman, 2004: Effects of a wind-driven gyre on thermohaline circulation variability. J. Phys. Oceanogr.34, 805–816.
  • Shaffrey, L., and R. Sutton, 2004: The interannual variability of energy transports within and over the Atlantic ocean in a coupled climate model.J. Climate17, 1433–1448.
  • Vellingam M., and P. Wu, 2004: Low-latitude freshwater influence on centennial variability of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation. J. Climate17, 4498–4511.


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  • Gulev, S. K., B. Barnier, H. Knochel, J. M. Molines, and M. Cottet, 2003: Water mass transformation in the North Atlantic and its impact on the meridional circulation: insights from an ocean model forced by NCEP–NCAR reanalysis surface fluxes. J. Climate16, 3085–3110.
  • Haine, T. W. N., K. J. Richards, and Y. Jia, 2003: Chlorofluorocarbon constraints on North Atlantic ventilation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.33, 1798–1814.
  • Lumpkin, R., and K. Speer, 2003: Large-scale vertical and horizontal circulation in the North Atlantic ocean. J. Phys. Oceanogr.33, 1902–1920.
  • Marshall, J., and T. Radko, 2003: Residual-mean solutions for the Antarctic circumpolar current and its associated overturning circulation. J. Phys. Oceanogr.33, 2341–2354
  • Rhines and Hakkinen, 2003: Is the Oceanic Heat Transport in the North Atlantic Irrelevant to the Climate in Europe?, ASOF Newsletter.
  • Saenko, O. A., A. J. Weaver, and J. M. Gregory, 2003: On the link between the two modes of the ocean thermohaline circulation and the formation of global-scale water masses.J. Climate16, 2797–2801.
  • Zhang, D., M. J. McPhaden, and W. E. Johns, 2003: Observational evidence for flow between the subtropical and tropical Atlantic: the Atlantic subtropical cells. J. Phys. Oceanogr.33, 1783–1797.


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